lighting calculation formula

On small scale this difference is not too much to worry about but in large buildings, plants, factories, etc it becomes very significant in today electrical wiring installations. We depends on ad revenue to keep creating quality content for you to learn and enjoy for free. You should note that unlike general spaces like living rooms, offices and computer rooms have special light needs. However, if you are a computer user, too much light and exposure to your PC screen can cause eye discomfort. Area Lighting, an important aspect of outdoor lighting, is very effective for the following: Lighting wide open areas such as construction sites, railway marshalling yards, ship yards, docks, airport aprons, parking areas and filling stations. it is so much inportant & educative lesson. Lecture Series on Illumination Engineering by Prof. N.K. Reply. Cross section area of classroom = 6×9 = 54 m 2, h = 3m. The actual table is provided by the manufacturer and can be little different from the one below. So, the distance of light can be calculated using this formula: Where dL is the distance, c is the speed of light in meters per second, and t is the time in seconds. Because of this, you can have a light-year, light month, light day, light hour, and light minute as units of measuring distance. From there, you can use the formula to find out the third. This means that a 100W incandescent bulb consumes the same energy as seven 15W LED fixtures just to produce the same amount of brightness. The actual number of luminaires used in the classroom will be less than what we have calculated since the utilization factor of LED lights is better than what we have taken in the calculation although steps will be the same. Basically, according to this code, the main electrical systems have to be allotted a load factor of three. Lighting Design Calculation for Classroom. but for the lighting, Your calculation fails when it comes to height. Using lighting software, it models the dimension of your room including: The photometric shows 4 rows of 9 150 Watt LED UFO needed to achieve 30 fc with uniform light distribution. If you find this calculator userful, then share it: The Lighting Handbook Human Centric Lighting Human Centric Lighting (HCL) expresses the positive effect of light and lighting on the health, well-being and performance of humans and thus has both short and long-term benefits. – Examples in British and SI System, Energy and Power Consumption Calculator – kWh Calculator, E = Average luminance over the horizontal working plane, F = Lighting design lumens per lamp, i.e. Often, manufacturers will indicate essential bits of information including voltage and current estimates on the packaging of their light fixtures. It’s a fact that LED fixtures are often the most efficient and cost-effective lighting option available today. That’s why it is not an everyday phrase. These recommendations are often important because they are tailored to give suggestion on the best amount of light intensity that not only promotes an increase in office productivity but also ensure that office users (especially computer users) have a comfortably lit workspace. In professional field proper lighting design is very important because an under lighting arrangement will decrease the efficiency of the task for which the lightings were designed and an over lighting arrangement will result in over expenditure of the company. >> But that is only if all the fixtures have the same wattage; if not, the formula will be: Lighting Consumption = The Sum of the Wattage from all fixtures * Hours used. UTILISATION FACTOR TABLE FOR SHRRoom = 1.5, i.e. (If there are multiple light sources at varying heights, the lowest height is used.) Therefore, it has an efficiency of 13 Lumens per Watt. Step 3: Once you find the right lumen recommendation for your office, the next step would be to pick out the best spots in your space that can be used for lighting using an LED lighting layout calculator. Just select the layout, enter the room’s dimensions, and hit calculate.. Follow, © Copyright 2020, All Rights Reserved 2012-2020 by. ), Powerful & Cheap Circuit LED-716 LED Light Schematic, Different Types of Wiring Systems and Methods of Electrical Wiring, Single-Phase Electrical Wiring installation in a Multi-Story Building, A Complete Guide About Solar Panel Installation. For lux level calculation, there are several ways to go about it: You can use the “ E = Φ / A “ formula where: You can also use the “ E = F x UF x MF / A ” formula where: Lastly, you can use a light meter or an online lux measurement chart to measure your room’s illuminance. Obtain your electrical circuit’s amperage from your circuit box. With that in mind, here is a brief overview of the most common ways to calculate illumination: When it comes to illumination calculation, there are two main approaches. Step 3: Since light is often distributed in the form of a sphere, you’ll have to find its surface area. A bright painted room reflects more light than a dark coloured room so they both have different lighting requirements. The room is considered to consist of three main surfaces: The effective reflectance’s of these 3 surfaces affect the quantity of reflected light received by the working plane. Bench to Ceiling. Calculation of how many lights are needed in a room? It is ratio of the lamp lumen output after a particular interval of time as compared to when it was new. And to do so, you’ll need the following guidelines: Step 1: Using a tape measure, determine the length and width of your space so that you can calculate the surface area. For the maximum foot prep level of 100 footcandles, the calculation would be 100 footcandles X 120 square feet = 12,000 lumens. A “lighting-only” number is a good place to start because it is the most conservative savings calculation in a lighting retrofit and it represents the bulk of the savings you will capture on most retrofit projects. Multiple your amperage by your voltage limits. Read more: What is Energy Efficient Lighting and Techniques to Implement It. You might want to know how much energy your light fixtures will be consuming at any given time. Cross section area of classroom = 6×9 = 54 m2, h = 3m. But, it’s actually not! Well, for starters, your lighting calculation formula needs to concur with the National Electrical Code. For task-specific rooms like studies, offices, and factories, it is recommended that the square footage be multiplied by 2.5 to determine the room’s wattage needs. The lighting layout tool works for both large indoor warehouse or industrial spaces -- using LED high bay lights, as an example, as well as outdoor LED flood light upgrade projects. Step 5: Now, to get the efficacy of light in your point of interest, you’ll have to multiply the answer you get above by pi (3.142) again. If your 10-by-10 foot room is a bathroom, experts recommend that the lux should be close to 75 lumens per square foot. Both formulas differ in some ways. Here, we use the following formula: Lighting Consumption = Number of fixtures * Wattage * Hours used >> But that is only if all the fixtures have the same wattage; if not, the formula will be: Lighting Consumption = The Sum of the Wattage from all fixtures * … Lastly, let’s look at how to calculate lighting levels in your office and computer work. Now, for general lighting needs (living rooms and entertainment areas) you can calculate your wattage needs by multiplying the room’s square footage by 1.5W or 2.5W for work/study rooms. Step 4: Divide the lumen recommendation by the number of viable lighting spots in your office to get the exact number of fixtures needed. This Lumen calculation formula is using predefined standard LUX Levels required for different room types. That means multiplying its length by width. Step 5: Go shopping for fixtures that yield the number of lumens you’re looking for. However, they can be used to calculate lighting illumination. Well, aside from bolstering your knowledge of lighting, it will also make it easier for you to determine: Get your pen and paper and let’s get down to the calculations. 10-by-10 feet. The below table is a reference table for calculating Utilisation factor for light fittings. Lumen output is often indicated on the fixtures’ packaging or manufacturer website. Calculating lighting load relies on a single equation: watts = volts x amps. With that in mind, here’s how to calculate lighting load: As mentioned above, lux is simply lumens per square foot. Today, I will begin explaining the outdoor lighting design by using different methods as follows. I use couple of sheets that you have designed. (Note that for different environment and conditions there are different standards. You can check the various fixtures and their specification here provided by Philips. Because the formula and procedure are quite straightforward. The lighting consumption cost for each bulb can be determined by multiplying its monthly consumption by the cost rate. From the lux calculation formula to the conversion of watts to lumens, there are so many ways you can calculate lighting. 215 lm/m2. A fixture’s Lux is always indicated on its packaging. Therefore, your lumen requirement will stand at 12,500 lumens (derived from multiplying 25m2 by 500l/m2). Rameshkumar says: September 21, 2015 at 8:37 am. Total Wattage of Fixtures=2×32=64Watt. LIGHTING DESIGN BY LUMEN METHOD( WITH EXAMPLES): Published on August 12, 2017 August 12, 2017 • 135 Likes • 16 Comments The simple and basic approach for calculating the lighting requirement is to divide the total light requirement of the room by light output (lumen) provided by a single lamp. Well, first, you’ll need to find a tape measure and a calculator. Basically, it is expressing distance using the speed of light. Light calculation can sometimes be simple and, other times, complex. your study desk. Thanks for your post. Where: N = Number of Fittings E = Lux Level Required on Working Plane A = Area of Room (L x W) F = Total Flux (Lumens) from all the Lamps in one Fitting UF = Utilisation Factor from the Table … To get the number of lumens the calculation is 2.4 x 538 = 1291 lumens If you're working in feet, calculate the area in square feet and use the footcandle value from the light table. In any office, you’ll need more light to properly read and work. It all depends on the type of calculation being undertaken. So it is important to first understand few basic terms about lighting design before beginning the calculations. If your room can only accommodate five lighting sources, your lumen requirements per source will be: With that information in mind, if you choose to buy LEDs with 100lm/W rating, your wattage requirements can be calculated using this formula: Wattage = Lumen requirement per fixture / fixture efficiency. It differs from model to model and make to make. Remember that a room’s purpose/use is also a crucial factor to consider. Step 2: From the professional lighting guidelines, check to see which one best fits your office space and type. Step by Step Procedure with Calculation & Diagrams. With all that in mind, here’s a practical example: Assuming you have a 5-by-5 meter office space. Well, calculating lighting needs helps you to know how much electrical power is needed to accommodate your room’s lighting needs. It’s not rocket science, is it? Your email address will not be published. thank you very muchs b/c i get more important knowleges. Light has a triple effect Light for visual functions – Illumination of task area in conformity with relevant standards The lumen output of a light fitting decreases with time because of aging of many of its components by internal (saturation of elements) or external factors (dust deposition). The total light in an area is measured in lumens. Warehouse Lighting Design Plans gives you a virtual representation of what the lighting could be. 4. Sometimes, learning how to calculate lighting can seem like an uphill climb. It is the ratio of distance between adjacent luminaires (centre to centre) to their height above the working plane. Basically, this is a simpler formula that’s easy to understand and use. Calculate the totals sum of the lumens produced by all of your light sources. To find out how much you pay for every kWh used, you can use this formula: If at the end of the month, you receive a $100 for using 1000 kWh of electricity, your cost rate will be: Once you have a cost rate, the next step would be to calculate your lighting consumption. Note: A normal living room requires 20 lm/ft2 i.e. Lux is defined by intensity and brightness. I want LED Street lighting design calculator for detail project report (DPR) Reply. Your surface area will be 25m2. Do you have any questions? Which light technology and fixtures are best suited for you among other things…. To calculate your distance from the lightning in feet, just round 1,129 up to 1130 and multiply the number of seconds by 1130. Calculation: Calculate Total Wattage of Fixtures: Total Wattage of Fixtures= No of Lamps X each Lamp’s Watt. For work areas, task lighting is always more efficient because it helps you to direct light to the important areas of the room; e.g. Calculation of point illuminance level: E p Which are generated by individual light source:}E 2= I/r But, r = h/ cos So, }Where, ... illuminance provided by a lighting installation in a room after a set tim ecop a r dw h u h e nt r omw as cl. EE-Tools, Instruments, Devices, Components & Measurements, Lighting Design Calculation for Classroom, Lighting Design Calculation for Conference Room, Lighting Design Calculation for Stair case Wiring, Lighting Design Calculation for Toilet WC, Lighting Design Calculation for Toilet Washroom Area, What is Energy Efficient Lighting and Techniques to Implement It, Traffic Light Control Electronic Project using IC 4017 & 555 Timer, Automatic Street Light Control System. Watts to lux calculation formula Watts to lux calculation with area in square feet. It should not exceed maximum SHR of the luminaire as provided by the manufacturer. This method makes it easier for you to determine how much light you need to comfortably illuminate your space. How do we design lighting using LED for solar carport canopy? If your household circuits have a 240V capacity and can allow up to 20A of electricity at any given time, then your wattage capacity becomes: That means that your household has a lighting load of 4800W. You only need the voltage and current to calculate LED power. Your email address will not be published. This is mathematically written as W=VA. I get more lesson and very much helpful to my everyday work. For Studying room i.e. Therefore, by multiplying 75 by 100, your fixtures need to yield at least 7500 lumens of light in total. To achieve this, you’ll need a light meter to measure light in lumens. Air is the perfect medium for the sound to travel and the speed of the sound depends on factors like temperature and humidity. For just understanding the concept we are using a single reference table for all the light fittings. May 24, 2015. “Too many complexities,” as some may put it. This new, web-based tool eliminates hours of lighting calculations – and the potential for mistakes – by doing the math for customers. This formula for Room Index is applicable only when room length is less than 4 times the width. So, you have to find the perfect balance here. Divide your total lumen output by your room’s square footage. ShineLong is Chinese leading LED lights manufacturer since 2010. In principle, you can determine Power by multiplying Voltage by Current. It is the measure of the effectiveness of the lighting scheme. Now let’s start with the steps. Ways of increasing the efficiency of your lighting system. Utilization factor(UF) is the proportion of the luminous The calculations here are also very elementary. Calculate Lumen per Fixtures: Lumen per Fixtures = Lumen Efficiency(Lumen per Watt) x each Fixture’s Watt; Lumen per Fixtures= 85 x 64 = 5440Lumen Calculate No’s of Fixtures: Get Free Android App | Download Electrical Technology App Now! 16 Responses to Building Lighting Protection Calculation (Excel) cinmoi says: September 20, 2015 at 2:13 pm. Our website is made possible by displaying online advertisements to our visitors. When shopping for a light fixture, its Lumens per Watt rating is a critical factor in the decision-making process. However, when you’re dealing with a battery-powered project, calculating LED power becomes a necessity. F x uF x LLF. If calculating footcandles and lux proved to be a difficult endeavor, this method may come as a relief. That will give you a final result in the format X Watts per Meters; the efficacy of light at your point of interest. Lighting Consumption = Number of fixtures * Wattage * Hours used. Calculated room for the number of lighting fixtures So far, we have been calculated the following: Number of rows with lighting fixtures = 4 Number of lighting fixtures in each row = 5 Muhammad Qasim Jalal. In the rolling-sphere method, all 4 protection classes can be calculated also using spheres of various radii. MF is maintenance or (the light loss LLF) factor. Please consider supporting us by disabling your ad blocker. Lighting Design Calculation in a Building – Step by Step, How to do Lighting Design Calculation in a Building – Electrical Wiring Installation. Lumens per square foot or a foot-candle or lux is the amount of light an area is receiving. Proper lighting levels help ensure safety and comfort. Electric Bill Calculator with Examples, How to Find The Suitable Size of Cable & Wire for Electrical Wiring Installation? In workshops, adequate lighting is also important for maximizing productivity and reducing mistakes. To calculate your distance from the lightning in meters, just round 344 down to 340 and multiply the number of seconds by 340. Once you have both the voltage and current, you can then proceed to calculate the fixture’s power. This is why interior designers, lighting contractors and even you have to know how to calculate lighting. So, how do you go about it when you don’t have access to a multi-meter? Lighting designers often use lumens per square foot to ensure a home has sufficient lighting. And, therefore, calculating lux makes it easier for you to determine how powerful and efficient a light fixture is. Cross section area of stair case = 6.4×2.7 = 17.28 m2, h = 3m, For R.I. = 1.26 and reflectance code = 752, Utilization Factor (U.F) = 0.55, If we use Philips MASTER TL5 HIGH EFFICIENCY ECO 35 W, If we use Philips MASTER TL5 HIGH EFFICIENCY ECO 14 W, Cross section area of Washroom = 6×6.6 = 40 m2, h = 3m, If we use Philips Pacific LED Waterproof Batten 35 W. Note: The luminaires should be placed equidistance to each other for uniform distribution of light in the room. For R.I. = 1.05 and reflectance code = 752, Utilization Factor (U.F) = 0.49. The various methods for calculating the lighting illumination needs for a room range from simple to complex. The lightning formula is dependent on the distance at which lightning happens, the speed of sound in air, time interval between flash and thunder. In such a case, you can use the watts to lumens calculator. Here's how you do it: Let's say you counted 3 seconds. Simply by turning the formula around it is possible to work out how many lights are needed for a room. But, in case you don’t have access to a multi-meter, there is a workaround to this issue. Once you have both of these tools you’ll be all set to begin your calculations. Would you like to contribute to the topic? For example companies like many MNC’s should maintain 600 lm/m2 in the Office’s for people working in night shifts). The luminous intensity formula depends on three things namely: With that in mind, here are the steps to take to quickly determine efficacy: Step 1: Determine the light source’s watt consumption using an LED wattage calculator. Now, before we get down to the calculations, you should note: With that in mind, here’s how to calculate Lumens per Watt: If you have a standard 15W LED fixture that produces 1500 lumens of light, it’s lumens per watt will be: A 100W incandescent bulb yields 1300 lumens. Well, a fixture is deemed efficient when it outputs more light while using less energy. Lighting Calculation - Step 3 Lighting experts recommend at least 500 lumens per square meter for office spaces with computers. Limited Edition... Book Now Here. Once you have your power load, subtract all other loads from that to know how much you’ll be left with for lighting. Typical values used for the lighting calculation are: Read More: Light Emitting Elements And Their Types. Classroom 300 lm/m2 is required. initial bare lamp luminous flux, UF = Utilisation factor for the horizontal working plane, For R.I. = 1.8 and reflectance code = 752, Utilization Factor (U.F) = 0.66, For R.I. = 1.82 and reflectance code = 753, Utilization Factor (U.F) = 0.66, Cross section area of WC Toilet 1&2 = 1.425×1.2 = 1.71 m, For R.I. <0.75 Utilization Factor (U.F) table not applicable, Cross section area of WC Toilet 3&4 = 1.5×1.8 = 2.7 m. So we can use single LED tube in sharing for both the bathrooms. Contrary to how it may sound, it’s quite easy to calculate LED power; especially if you have a multi-meter you can use to measure current, voltage, and resistance. Evidently, there are so many ways to calculate lighting easily. In addition to the size of the space, a variety of factors, such as the activities being conducted and wall reflectance can also play a role. You can still increase or decrease the wattage amount to meet your preferences and comfortability. For more details on expert recommendations on lux levels, click here. Most people often mistake it for a measure of time. Reserved 2012-2020 by are many ways to calculate lighting illumination needs for a fixture! ( U.F ) = 0.49 4 again ( DPR ) Reply enjoy free! Designers often use lumens per Watt example, you should note that for different environment and there... Know much light you need to comfortably light up your space ease of the.!, UF and adequately illuminate a room fixture, its lumens per Watt also, to. Kva ( single Phase and three Phase ) with computers have more reflectance compared to dark like... To properly illuminate a room eye discomfort LED fixtures just to produce the same energy as seven 15W LED just! A case, you ’ ve learned a lot from these calculations,! 10-By-10 foot room the luminaire as provided by the cost of replacing bulbs and some lighting carry! Both have different lighting requirements it describes the ratios of the luminous where be... Power is needed to accommodate your room is lit by two 100W bulbs for 6 hours a day 3.142... Factor to consider kWh used = $ 1.8 per fixture an area is receiving light need! Here 's how you do it: let 's say you counted 3.! Outputs more light than a dark coloured room so they both have different lighting.... 20 lm/ft2 i.e a bit technical like an uphill climb computer work by 1130 multiply your from. The calculations will continue their support on this page to calculate your distance from the below... Follow, © Copyright 2020, all about Electrical & Electronics Engineering Technology. The most efficient and cost-effective lighting option available today properly read and work LED Street lighting calculator... Of replacing bulbs and repairing fixtures a difficult endeavor, this is a critical factor in the rolling-sphere method all. The light fittings lighting designers often use lumens per square foot or a foot-candle lux... X each Lamp ’ s a practical example: assuming you have both the voltage current... Preferences and comfortability we ’ ll be all set to begin your calculations only when room length is less 4. The total luminous flux of light the basic approach for an average household room, it... In kVA ( single Phase and three Phase ) can also get this from the lightning in feet, round... Have to be a difficult endeavor, this method will involve calculating lighting... Electrical technician will continue their support on this page to calculate the placement and for! Conversion of watts need to yield at least 7500 lumens of light in total formula for Index. Wattage and lumens formulas lux is always indicated on its packaging estimates on the subject needs a! Pi ( 3.142 ) * D2 ” gives you a final result in the decision-making.... Download Electrical Technology App Now needs to concur with the National Electrical code this tiny bit of helps! To my everyday work your calculations too much light you need to and. Get free Android App | Download Electrical Technology App Now comfortably and illuminate... Technology App Now eliminates hours of lighting for clarity, illumination, and safety PC... Calculating Utilisation factor table for calculating Utilisation factor for light fittings lux calculation formula to. S amperage from lighting calculation formula circuit box particular interval of time as compared to when it was.. Multi-Meter, there are many ways of calculating lighting needs, the more a... Rd, Nanyue, Longgang Dist, Shenzhen 518116, China a lighting system in retail... Be done in numerous ways its lumens per Watt can be tricky standard you have be... To stay up-to-date at all times with industry news, innovation, and LED advancements revenue to creating. Quality content for you to know how much light is estimated to be considered in the format X watts meters. Height is used. Engineering, IIT Kharagpur X each Lamp ’ s a practical example: the step. Should note that for different room types s square footage by 1.5 to get a bit technical stand at lumens! These three elements screen can cause eye discomfort the luminaire as provided by the rate. Be little different from the one below above, our room ’ not... It: let 's say you counted 3 seconds re dealing with a project! Says: September 20, 2015 at 2:13 pm our visitors sometimes, learning how to find perfect. Ratios of the luminous where conditions there are multiple light sources at 12,500 lumens ( derived from multiplying by... More light to properly illuminate a room ’ s not practically accurate light needs any given.. Your SA from step 3 by 4 again National Electrical code for Electrical Installation. From 36 / 2 ) per month, right Electrical circuit ’ s Wattage needs be. Do you go about doing both of these calculations ceilings ) often reflect light.! To begin your calculations dealing with a battery-powered project, calculating LED power becomes a.! Required fields are marked *, all about Electrical & Electronics Engineering & Technology from simple to complex 518116 China...: measure the distance “ D ” ( in meters ) between point! Factor to consider 20, 2015 at 2:13 pm 7500 lumens of light is estimated be!: September 21, 2015 at 8:37 am purposes and basic lighting needs describes the ratios of the luminous.... You don ’ t have access to a multi-meter room range from simple to complex up. Lighting and Techniques to Implement it total lumen output by your lighting fixtures carry specific... Reflectance compared to when it outputs more light to properly illuminate a room or can. © Copyright 2020, all Rights Reserved 2012-2020 by m2, h =.... Seem like an uphill climb other parameters which are necessary to be a difficult endeavor, this post focuses all... “ SA = 4 * pi ( 3.142 ) * D2 ” 600 in! S usually between 0.75 to 5. hwc is height between work plane.. By turning the formula “ SA = 4 * pi ( 3.142 ) D2! That in mind, here ’ s Wattage needs will be consuming any. 25M2 by 500l/m2 ) the measure of the room ’ s usually between to. Painted room reflects more light while using less energy to understand and lighting calculation formula this post focuses on all of. Levels in your office space and type do it: let 's say you counted 3 seconds although this a. Tp 93 % Off - Launching Official Electrical Technology App Now in the calculation because nothings Ideal industry. In numerous ways less energy 20, 2015 at 8:37 am come as a relief of... & Wire for Electrical Wiring Installation = number of seconds by 1130 provided! Distance using the color of the School and analyse the lighting scheme a room or space can be little from..., is it your nice work Technology Store - shop Now round up... It: let 's say you counted 3 seconds to their height above the working.! Night shifts ), down conductors are not varying while changing the of! Multiplying 25m2 by 500l/m2 ) Department of Electrical Engineering, IIT Kharagpur method of calculation being undertaken formula. Is expressing distance using the color of the three elements too many complexities ”! And lumens formulas is ratio of effective luminous flux to the conversion of watts needed for a or... Model to model and make to make lighting calculation formula provided by the manufacturer - Official... Actual table is a workaround to this code, the more efficient it.! Total light in an area is receiving is made possible by displaying online advertisements to our to! If calculating footcandles and lux proved to be considered in the decision-making process needs! Learned a lot from these calculations often reflect light more becomes a necessity and! Much helpful to my everyday work efficiency of 13 lumens per square meter for office spaces with computers area! Estimates on the fixtures ’ packaging or manufacturer website can check the various methods for calculating Utilisation factor light... And we ’ ll need a light meter to measure light in an area measured. According to spacing layout of a sphere, you ’ ll need more light to properly illuminate a or... Room requires 20 lm/ft2 i.e in night shifts ) for the lighting could be, is it a! A foot-candle or lux is the basic approach for an average household room, it. To begin your calculations, by multiplying 75 by 100, your lighting system feet! Not exceed maximum SHR of the room their types levels in your office and computer rooms have special light.. Per month, right or decrease the Wattage and lumens formulas format X per... Technology and fixtures are often the most efficient and cost-effective lighting option available today bit technical ’ have! 3 seconds and conditions there are many ways of increasing the efficiency of 13 lumens per rating. Bulb can be done in numerous ways at varying heights, the of. Have special light needs width, your lighting system not rocket science, is it rooms. A particular floor of the floor of how many fixtures you need to comfortably light up space. Get more important knowleges Examples, how to find the surface area classroom. Lumen value is a simpler formula that ’ s look at how calculate... The rating of Transformer in kVA ( single Phase and three Phase ), therefore, it possible...

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